When turning a desired material, it is rotated and a cutting tool is traversed along two axes of motion to produce precise diameters and depths. CNC turning can be either on the outside of the cylinder or on the inside (also known as boring) to produce tubular components to various geometries.
The turning processes are typically carried out on a lathe, considered to be the oldest machining tool. The various processes of turning can produce vast shapes of materials such as straight, conical, curved, or grooved. In general, turning uses simple single-point cutting tools.